U.S. Senate Federal Office
Elections: 1857-present. The state legislature held 22 general and special elections for U.S. Senator from 1857 through 1911. In September 1912, the first state run primary for U.S. Senate was held and a popular preference vote was on the ballot at the November general election. The Keefe Law, which most candidates signed, required state legislative candidates to sign a pledge that they would observe the popular vote. The 17th Amendment requiring the direct election of U.S. Senators was ratified in 1913 with the state's first such election taking place in 1916.